The genetics of the 1950s was that DNA is the seat of all inheritance, and that genetic information traveled one way: from DNA to protein. That “central dogma” has been changing after decades of further researchers. Theories of epigenetics (inheritance not limited to DNA) have been gaining attention with increasing frequency. Science Daily reported on work by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health that “Heritability May Not Be Limited To DNA.” The European Molecular Biology Laboratory issued a press release shouting, “Rewrite the Textbooks: Transcription is Bidirectional.” And Nature last week (22 Jan 2009 issue) had a special section on RNA interference. Small RNAs play a major role in how genes are expressed, and may play roles in inheritance. One of the papers discussed the interplay of histones and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in epigenetic inheritance.1 Histone methylation patterns can pass from parent to daughter cell, and “siRNAs act only on those daughter DNA strands that have inherited old parental histone H3 molecules containing H3K9 methylation,” wrote author Danesh Moazed. “Such cooperativity-based mechanisms involving the dual recognition of histone marks and other specificity factors (siRNAs or DNA-binding proteins) are likely to underlie all epigenetic cis-inheritance mechanisms.” Much remains to be discovered in this “Pandora’s Box” of new insights into inheritance, as Angela Eggleston described it in the introductory article. Moazed ended, “Future studies are likely to provide new and surprising insights about the way in which small and large non-coding RNAs regulate chromatin structure and how this ability is, in turn, regulated.” See also the 01/23/2009 entry, bullet 9.1. Danesh Moazed, “Small RNAs in transcriptional gene silencing and genome defence,” Nature 457, 413-420 (22 January 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature07756.These studies had nothing of substance to say about evolution. Moazed wrote, for instance, that “With the notable exception of budding yeast, small-RNA-mediated silencing mechanisms and their role in chromatin regulation are conserved throughout eukaryotes, indicating an ancient evolutionary origin.” It indicates no such thing. It indicates the absence of evolution. What is the absence of evolution? Creation! Another paper in the set said this: “These findings have raised many questions about how and why this widespread RNA-mediated regulation of genes evolved…” Maybe it didn’t evolve – why not consider that option? We’ve already seen from the 01/23/2009 entry, bullet 9, that evolutionists are clueless trying to explain these things. Genetics was complex enough to justify the intelligent design movement when the structure of DNA was discovered in 1953, and shown to be a code translated into another code. How much more so today with the mechanisms of inheritance seen to be increasingly complex on entirely new levels.(Visited 3 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Saturn’s giant moon has prompted a flurry of new science papers. Can anyone keep it billions of years old?Ever since the predicted global ocean on Titan was falsified, planetary scientists have been in theory-repair mode to keep it billions of years old. Cassini arrived in 2004 and started looking at a largely crater-free surface. The Huygens Probe landed on moist sand in January 2015, further puzzling scientists about the vast lakes of liquid that had been predicted. Now, after 12 years of encounters with the larger-than-Mercury moon of Saturn, Cassini has sent enough data for a comprehensive look at the geology, atmosphere and life span of Titan.There’s way too much verbiage to review in all these papers. What we will focus on are data and arguments that might keep this young-looking world as old as 4.5 billion years (its assumed age). First, take a look at the beautiful new global maps assembled by Cassini’s Virtual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) posted by Space.com. Titan still has “secrets”, the article says, calling it “a still-mysterious moon” after a decade of detailed study. There’s only one large crater visible, named Sinlap, “one of the youngest impact craters to dot Titan’s surface.” OK, so where are all the old ones?Cassini Spies Titan’s Tallest Peaks (Astrobiology Magazine). Enjoy the picture of Titan’s ski resort, rising almost 11,000 feet high. Smaller Pluto has bigger mountains than that.Discovering the bath scum on Titan (Helen Maynard-Casely on The Conversation). Features in one of the northern lakes seem to appear and disappear. Maynard-Casely helped identify one of the crystal forms of benzene and ethane in the “scum” on Titan’s lakeshores, but fails to mention the missing ethane that should have accumulated in deep deposits over billions of years. See also PhysOrg‘s writeup.Bubblin’ crude (New Scientist): A JPL scientist surmises that “if a methane-nitrogen mix rained down on a pure ethane lake, as much as 15 times the volume of nitrogen would be released, potentially making for some very big bubbles.” This might explain the “magic islands” disappearing act (see next article). Quote:It just goes to show how much these alien worlds can surprise us, says Malaska. “We used to think of Titan as very Earth-like, but the more we learn about it, we learn it is really weird.”Titan’s “Magic Islands”: Transient features in a hydrocarbon sea (Icarus). Possible waves in the few northern lakes might explain the transient features. Can this dynamic environment have existed for billions of years?Nature, distribution, and origin of Titan’s Undifferentiated Plains (Icarus). Wind-driven materials forming “blandlands” at mid latitudes represent “an important repository of organic materials on Titan,” this paper says, claiming that depositional or sedimentary processes account for them. But why is the material not liquid, if predominantly ethane and methane?Fluvial erosion as a mechanism for crater modification on Titan (Icarus). Where are all the craters? They’ve been eroded away by liquid, this paper claims. Processes such as weathering, mass wasting, fluvial incision and deposition “may explain Titan’s crater distribution” (i.e., the surprisingly few that have been found). Wind can’t do it all, so rainfall and rivers must be accounting for the rest of the erosion.The fate of ethane in Titan’s hydrocarbon lakes and seas (Icarus). This paper seems tailor-made to answer the missing ethane problem. Where did it all go? A little hocus-pocus with unobservable processes might help, especially if we ignore the global-ocean deficiency and just focus on one lake, making assumptions that cannot be tested.Ethane is expected to be the dominant photochemical product on Titan’s surface and, in the absence of a process that sequesters it from exposed surface reservoirs, a major constituent of its lakes and seas. Absorption of Cassini’s 2.2 cm radar by Ligeia Mare however suggests that this north polar sea is dominated by methane. In order to explain this apparent ethane deficiency, we explore the possibility that Ligeia Mare is the visible part of an alkanofer [a layer that stores alkanes, a class of hydrocarbons] that interacted with an underlying clathrate layer and investigate the influence of this interaction on an assumed initial ethane–methane mixture in the liquid phase. We find that progressive liquid entrapment in clathrate allows the surface liquid reservoir to become methane-dominated for any initial ethane mole fraction below 0.75. If interactions between alkanofers and clathrates are common on Titan, this should lead to the emergence of many methane-dominated seas or lakes. Geomorphological map of the Afekan Crater region, Titan: Terrain relationships in the equatorial and mid-latitude regions (Icarus). These scientists make judgment calls on which terrains are the oldest: the undifferentiated plains, the mountains, the dunes, or the craters. They figure the dunes are the youngest, but their conclusions appear theory-dependent. “Our geomorphological mapping results are consistent with the equatorial and mid-latitudes of Titan being dominated by organic materials that have been deposited and emplaced by aeolian activity.”Material transport map of Titan: The fate of dunes (Icarus). In the massive dunefields, fluvial processes do not dominate, these planetary scientists say. “Our results are consistent with aeolian transport being the dominant mechanism in the equatorial and mid-latitude zones.” They claim the dunes are in steady state, with material migrating poleward from the equator to an ultimate sink at 35 degrees latitude. But then what? “This observation suggests that either dune materials are converted or modified into plains units or that the margins of dunes are transport limited.” Remember, though, they have to account for 4.5 billion years of this process.Structure of Titan’s evaporites (Icarus). Liquid lands on the surface and evaporates. What’s left behind, and how much? They invent a model to explain the amount and distribution of evaporite deposits, needing to explain why there seems to be less in the south compared to the north. They estimate the maximum thickness of the deposits (not described in the Abstract). Why is it not liquid? Can the mass of solid deposits compensate for the expected global ocean?Alluvial Fan Morphology, distribution and formation on Titan (Icarus). The first survey of alluvial fans on Titan identified 82 of them, primarily at polar latitudes. These imply sediment transport downhill by rivers or wind, “suggesting that fluvial sediment transport may have been concentrated in the near-polar terrains in the geologically recent past.”Role of fluids in the tectonic evolution of Titan (Icarus). This paper tries to hide the missing liquid under the surface again. They link subsurface liquid to crustal deformations, claiming that subsurface liquid causes surface contraction, forming ridges. Once again, though, is this enough to sequester all the liquid that should have been found after billions of years? How does the liquid get under the sediments? This theory seems to raise more questions than answers.Update 4/05/16: Cryolava flow destabilization of crustal methane clathrate hydrate on Titan (Icarus). Another paper on Titan arrived since this entry was written. Famous planetary scientists Dennis Matson, Torrence Johnson and Christophe Sotin struggle to keep Titan’s methane concentrations going for long ages. They propose periodic cryovolcanic emissions, but admit: “However, this process cannot maintain methane resupply over geological time.” Conclusion: “The origin of Titan’s atmospheric methane and current resupply mechanism remain a mystery.”Tethys News. That’s all for Titan. Since our previous entry about Saturn’s other youthful moons (4/02/16), another Saturnian moon made the news: Tethys, third major moon out from the rings. Another paper in Icarus shares a surpising reversal in thinking: the big canyon, Ithaca Chasma—stretching nearly from pole to pole—was apparently not formed by the huge Odysseus impact on the opposite hemisphere. Although Tethys shares chemical/physical properties with Dione and Rhea (the next two big moons outward), the scientists “also identified spectral variations [on Tethys] that are unique in the Saturnian system.” Tethys is another “yold” world, bearing “geologically young surface features” made of large ice cubes and “geologically old weathered regions” made of small ice flakes. What? Tethys has weather? There’s no atmosphere to speak of. There is space weathering by the solar wind, but that should affect all surfaces equally. Unique features cause headaches for theorizers.It’s kind of fun watching the scientists pull their hair out to keep Titan old (what little hair is left after Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, comets, asteroids, etc.). We’re very happy that intelligent engineers got us out there for a close look, so we could witness the reactions. (Visited 34 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Crystal Palace boss Hodgson can’t fault players for Watford defeatby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveCrystal Palace boss Roy Hodgson couldn’t fault his players after defeat to Watford.The Eagles were winning 1-0 at the break thanks to Craig Cathcart’s own goal, but would see that quickly turned around thanks to two goals in seven minutes as Cathcart gained some retribution before a fine volley from Tom Cleverley settled matters in south London.Hodgson said, “It’s tough to lose any game, especially at home and it’s made tougher that we’ve been doing quite well lately. I was hoping that this would be the chance for us to get that elusive third victory that would have lifted us to a much more comfortable place in the table.“We were unable to get it, and when that happens there is no other emotion that I can display other than the obvious one of feeling very sad that we couldn’t do it.”He added: “If you want to win games, then you have to take the chances that come your way. Watford must be comfortable in that respect because they hit the post twice and had one cleared off the line and chances to score their two goals. We perhaps weren’t as effective and only scored one goal, but that’s what football is.“There aren’t many games this year where I have thought we were outplayed or didn’t deserve to win, but there have been games like this where the game could so easily have gone either way and you get questions about regrets or frustrations. I don’t think I could have asked for a lot more from the players; we certainly didn’t lose the game because there wasn’t the desire to win it.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
TUSCALOOSA, AL – SEPTEMBER 22: Head coach Nick Saban of the Alabama Crimson Tide watches his team take on the Georgia Bulldogs at Bryant-Denny Stadium September 22, 2007 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Georgia defeated Alabama 26-23 in overtime. (Photo by Doug Benc/Getty Images)It’s been documented in the past that Alabama head coach Nick Saban occasionally uses chewing tobacco. Today, on SportsCenter, college football fans got a look at his favorite brand. In an interview with ESPN’s Marty Smith, Saban had a pouch of “Red Man” next to his seat belt. It didn’t go unnoticed.Never thought of Saban as a Red Man guy pic.twitter.com/m2KwlSBhIX— Feitelberg (@FeitsBarstool) November 4, 2015ESPN camera in Nick Saban’s car catches a pouch of Red Man. He’s just like the rest of us; he has a vice! pic.twitter.com/B5QC2xbJQV— Aaron Suttles (@AaronSuttles) November 4, 2015For what it’s worth, it doesn’t really line up with Saban’s no-nonsense personality. But as Aaron Suttles of The Tuscaloosa News notes, we all have our vices.
VICTORIA – Major shifts in direction are being considered to ensure good drivers in British Columbia receive lower insurance rates, says the minister responsible for the province’s public auto insurer.David Eby said the government introduced an online survey Monday that poses questions about the public mood to realign coverage at the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia in order to offer major incentives for low-risk drivers by changing discount and penalty provisions.The proposed changes are part of the government’s plan to modernize the Crown corporation and restore its dismal finances, which Eby has described as a “dumpster fire.” The provincial budget forecasts a $1.3-billion deficit at ICBC this year.Eby said the government wants to hear from people in B.C. about the government’s plans for change. The public consultation ends April 5.Last month, he said the government will introduce legislation to change ICBC, including a $5,500 cap on claim payouts for minor pain and suffering.“The question is, who is a bad driver and how much more should they pay,” Eby said. “Is it someone who has two speeding tickets? It is someone who has at-fault accidents? Is it someone who has a single infraction with excessive speed?”The survey asks for input on changing policies for at-fault crashes, discounts and penalties.Under the proposed changes, one at-fault accident would be allowed without penalty after 20 years of safe driving, instead of the current 13 years. After an at-fault accident, it would also take drivers 10 years to return to their pre-accident discount rate status instead of the current three years.The proposal includes increased driver penalties and risk points for excessive speeding offences.“Car insurance rates in our province aren’t fair,” Eby says in a video on the government website. “Low-risk drivers with perfect records are paying more than they should. High-risk drivers who are driving up costs for everyone aren’t paying enough. We want to fix this problem.”The government says the auto insurance rating system is 30 years old and has not been updated in 10 years.
CALGARY – Shares in Ensign Energy Services Inc. closed about eight per cent higher at $5.49 Monday after it reported a smaller loss in its third quarter compared with a year ago, while revenue grew 17 per cent.The drilling company says it lost $32.8 million or 21 cents per share on revenue of $289 million, compared with a loss of $36.5 million or 23 cents per share on revenue of $247 million in the third quarter of 2017.The results closely matched analyst expectations, according to Thomson Reuters Eikon.Ensign, which moved a drilling rig from Canada into the U.S. earlier this year, reported third-quarter revenue from activity in Canada dropped by 11 per cent from last year, while U.S. revenue rose by 30 per cent.Last week, the Petroleum Services Association of Canada predicted a total of 6,600 wells will be drilled in Canada in 2019, down about five per cent from an expected 6,980 wells this year, adding that translates to a year-over-year decrease of up to $1.8 billion in capital spending by exploration and production companies.Calgary-based Ensign had no update on its hostile takeover bid of $470-million in cash for cross-town rival Trinidad Drilling Ltd. it launched in August.Trinidad’s board last month recommended shareholders accept instead an all-shares bid valued at $540 million from Calgary-based Precision Drilling Ltd.Companies in this story: (TSX:ESI, TSX:PD, TSX:TDG)
SEATTLE — The hemp industry still has work ahead to win legal status for hemp-derived cannabidiol, or CBD oil. The head of the Food and Drug Administration says adding CBD to food or dietary supplements is still illegal.President Donald Trump signed a farm bill Thursday designating hemp as an agricultural crop. The same day, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb issued a statement saying CBD is a drug ingredient and therefore illegal to add to food or supplements without approval from his agency.Courtney Moran, a lobbyist for Oregon hemp farmers, says she plans to work with U.S. Sen. Ron Wyden, an Oregon Democrat, to nudge the FDA toward greater acceptance of CBD.CBD is a non-psychoactive compound found in hemp, a type of cannabis plant.Carla K. Johnson, The Associated Press
Funds raised from the event will go to help boost community programs in the Fort St. John area. The United Way in Fort St. John supports 18 different community programs that fall within United Way’s three pillars of all that kids can be, poverty to possibility, and healthy people strong communities. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Over $62,000 has been raised for the United Way in Fort St. John with this weekends Fire Truck Pull.The amount was made possible by a $50,000 donation from Progress Energy and the money raised by 10 different teams who participated in the event. The team from Enbridge raised the most money with a team donation of $8,647.90.Last year’s Fire Truck Pull raised over $35,000.
Later in the day, the RCMP had located the vehicle in Grande Prairie and arrested the two occupants within the vehicle at a gas station on the east side of the city.According to Police, the pair were arrested in a stolen vehicle and a quantity of stolen property was located inside the vehicle.Facing charges are 31-year-old Michael Robert Corris and 56-year-old Joseph William Kelly, both of Fort St. John.Both males have been remanded in custody and will appear in Grande Prairie Provincial Court on September 26, 2019. GRANDE PRAIRIE, A.B. – The Western Alberta District RCMP Rural Crime Reduction Unit has charged suspects in connection to an armed robbery in Pouce Coupe.During the early morning hours of August 7, at around 5:00 a.m., Dawson Creek RCMP received a report of an armed robbery at a local business in the Pouce Coupe area.The RCMP say a description of the suspect vehicle was obtained and shared with RCMP Detachments in the Peace Region.
New Delhi: The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) Tuesday stayed the two notices issued by the Department of Telecom (DoT) to debt-ridden Reliance Communications for cancellation of its spectrum licence for delay in payment. A two-member bench headed by Chairman Justice S J Mukhopadhaya also stayed the DoT’s letter dated March 20, 2019 to Axis Bank to encash the bank guarantee of Rs 2,000 crore given by the Anil Ambani group firm. The appellate tribunal said the show cause notices to RCom and letter to Axis Bank by the government were against the order passed by it on February 4, when it had granted protection against any asset sale without its permission. “The show cause notices of March 14 and 15 and letter dated March 20, 2019 by DoT is against the direction passed by this tribunal,” the NCLAT said. The appellate tribunal also issued notice to DoT and directed to list the matter on April 8 along with the main case. Earlier on February 4, the tribunal had said that until further orders of the NCLAT or the Supreme Court, no one can sell, alienate, or create third-party rights over RCom’s assets.