In the first of three articles looking at innovation in theworkplace, Professor Amin Rajan explores obstacles to creativity throughout theworld, unearthing a tension between traditional business practices and creativeculture Worldwide, there is growing recognition that in the last wave of competitionin the 1990s, organisations of all sizes were converging on similar, thoughexacting standards of costs, reliability, functionality and quality for goodsand services alike. In the current wave, at best, these factors can ensuresurvival – they are no longer differentiators that ensure growth, according toa recent 27-country study commissioned by The Chartered Institute of ManagementAccountants. This is because consumerism is becoming a major movement in its own right –at least, in the European economies covered in the study. Under it, customerswant benefits that go well beyond economic criteria to include social, ethicaland environmental considerations. These are becoming increasingly important ascustomers create their own value systems, aided and abetted by growingaffluence, individualism and regulation. As a result, creativity has become oneof the key avenues to achieve differentiation. In this context, creativity is about generating new ideas and implementingthem in innovative ways. Innovation not only relates to products and servicesoffered in the marketplace, it also covers business processes andorganisational structures that underpin them in the workplace. Routes to innovation Structured creativity This is based on a clear step-by-stepcontrolled approach that identifies a specific problem and provides a creativesolution – something that taskforces often do. Non-linear creativity This builds on open-minded thinking resultingfrom brainstorming – it generates ideas without much regard to how they areconnected. Provoked creativity This uses a catalyst to provide new insights andunderstanding – the catalyst may be an analogy, a metaphor, a colour, and soon. Eureka creativity This covers real breakthroughs when something newsprings into mind that did not exist before – it is rare, intense, and withoutpattern, but with a clear defining moment. It is clear that the first three are a matter of incremental improvements,and the last is a breakthrough discovery. However, this survey has sought toidentify business practices that influence all of them because organisationscould not provide separate assessments for individual types of creativity. Thatlimitation has not detracted from gaining insights into factors that promotenew ideas, or from understanding their regional dimension. For example, more than two in three organisations in every region regardcreativity as “very important” and one in three as “moderatelyimportant” to business success in today’s global environment. Four in fiveorganisations in every region also regard creativity as an investment ratherthan a cost. The main difference, however, lies neither in the importance they attach tocreativity nor in the tools used to promote it. But it is in the expectationsof its outcomes. More organisations in the UK than anywhere else feel that creativity is notimportant in its own right, irrespective of whether it generates bottom-linebenefits. At the other extreme, far more organisations in Asia Pacific, MiddleEast and Africa view creativity as a long-term investment, duly accepting therisk that the pay-off may not be significant. Obstacles to creativity These differing expectations are indicative of three factors that areespecially strong in the UK and, to a lesser extent, in continental Europe. Ownership structure In the case of the UK and continental Europe, abigger proportion of the sample is made up of publicly quoted companies whichare more exposed to pressures from external shareholders. In marked contrast,Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa has a far bigger proportion ofprivately-owned companies in its sample, so the differences in attitude tocreativity are probably influenced as much – if not more – by ownershipstructure as by national cultures. Regulatory bodies By definition, creative people are willing to takerisks to challenge rules, behaviour and the status quo. In the UK and continentalEurope, a lot of these rules are increasingly imposed by a growing battery ofregulatory bodies. By seeking to regulate the day-to-day conduct of businesses,these rules limit the scope for creativity by imposing a more structured workenvironment with a bias towards conformity and conservatism. Predictability paradox As a phenomenon, consumerism is morepronounced in the UK and continental Europe than elsewhere in the sample. Ascustomers have come to expect ever-rising standards of quality and functionality,they have inadvertently promoted what has come to be known as thecreativity-predictability paradox. Customers want suppliers to meet variouspre-set benchmark standards in these and other areas. That means having evermore rigid processes and procedures at the producer end. At the same time, customers also expect a lot of creativity to be employedto produce predictable outcomes. But by definition, creativity can only produceunpredictable outcomes. Growth in consumerism is thus seen as a limitingfactor. The paradox is more acute in the UK and on the continent than elsewhere.Over time, it is expected to spread to other regions, as their economies becomemore advanced. The paradox is manifested through various inhibitors of creativity. Some arecultural – embedded in the psyche of the organisation. Others are structural –emanating from physical processes and the work environment. Cultural inhibitors in the UK – Lack of a can-do mindset – “We tried it years ago and it didn’twork” – The tribalism syndrome – “That’s the way we do things aroundhere” – Risk aversion – “We’ll think about that at a later date” Structural inhibitors in the UK – Time pressures on managers to deliver quick results – “Focus on thisquarter’stargets” – Employees not having enough time or space – “They check in theirpassion at the gate” – Lack of a coherent vision on creativity – “This place is overrun bybean counters” As the economy becomes weaker in response to global recessionary pressures,the cultural inhibitors are likely to ease and the structural ones get worse,with fewer employees doing more work. Killers of creativity have been around for nearly 2,000 years. Eachgeneration has experienced growing constraints as societies have matured andbecome more regulated. Equally, the unprecedented economic growth since theIndustrial Revolution in the late 18th century also tells us that humans haveshown remarkable ingenuity in overcoming the constraints on creativity. Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article Creative blockOn 20 Nov 2001 in Personnel Today
The college librarian has since sent an email to all students warning them not to leave their laptops unattended.The second year added, “the library staff now go round the library at regular intervals and note unattended laptops. They found nine the other day and put notes on them to warn the owners not to leave them. They are also investigating other ways to keep them safe.”Another student had her laptop and digital camera stolen from her room on the evening of the 1st of February.The student in question had left her room door unlocked and return to find her possessions had vanished.One first year linguist suggested that members of Wadham were too trusting, “people will often hold the door open for people they don’t know. The other day I gave astaircase code to someone I’d never met before – they looked like a student butin retrospect it was a silly thing to do.Wadham is a large college with lots of students living out, so it’s impossible to be able to recognise everyone. You don’t want to shut the door in someone’s face because it’s rude and they almost certainly have the right to be there – but sometimes they don’t.”The second year stressed the need for caution, “everyone thinks we are in a nice little bubble but we are in the middle of the city with a high crime rate. Anyone can walk into college.”Thames Valley Police are cooperating with college authorities as part of their investigation. But they urged students to stay aware of dangers, lock doors and windows and be vigilant on behalf of others.College authorities are studying CCTV footage in the hope of identifying the burglars. The police are also investigating the incidents.The college declined to comment on the burglaries or their security arrangements. Wadham College has been hit by a spate of thefts this week, with over £1,000 worth of goods stolen from students.One finalist had his camera, mp3 player and sunglasses taken from his room on the 28th of January.The door to his first floor room was locked, leading police to conclude that the thief must have entered through an unlatched window, accessible from a nearby ledge.But he said that the burglar had only taken items from one particular drawer, leaving him puzzled and unaware of the theft for some time.He said, “they left the rest of the room completely untouched and there were no signs that anyone had been in there.“I reported it to the college and one of porters called me later to check on details but apart from that I haven’t heard anything.”He was critical of college security, suggesting that, “a little bit of maintenance needs to be done” to improve it.A second year English student had her mobile stolen on 29th January. She said, “I spoke to the Dean, the porters and the police. The Dean was at first rather blasé, saying these things happen and students have to look after their property.“The head porter called me into his office yesterday though, sat me down, and wrote down a statement from me, word for word. It took bloody ages but it was worth it. It was automatically sent to the police for me.”Another student, Victoria Lupton, had her laptop stolen from the college library at lunchtime on 26th January.She admitted that people could be careless when leaving equipment around college saying, “people in Wadham are very lax about their possessions because everyone’s so trusting.“You have to use a Bod card to get into the library and there’s a lot of people around so people are happy to leave their laptops there. But it’s really easy to get into the college and the library by following someone.”She suggested that attitudes were changing but criticised the official response to her theft, “people are getting a lot more conscious about security, especially with their laptops. But the police weren’t very proactive; they didn’t even come and talk to me about it.”
You just found some odd worms eating holes in your maple tree leaves. How do you knowwhat they are?Until now, you could only search for an expert, visit the library or take a guess.Now, though, you have the knowledge and photographs of the South’s best experts at yourfingertips — if your fingertips rest on a computer keyboard. The Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, a group of forest entomologists, has put200 full-color images of forest insects and damage on two CD-ROM disks.They added a full-color booklet that includes:* Thumbnail photos of the images.* Scientific and common names.* Descriptions of the images.* The photographers’ names and affiliations.The two-volume set is entitled ‘Forest Insects and Their Damage.'”This CD-ROM set is … unique in the world as far as we know,” said Keith Douce, a Universityof Georgia Extension Service entomologist.Douce coordinated the 18-month project. He worked with Extension computer specialistB.T. Watson and forester David Moorhead. The project was supported by the conference andthe U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Health Unit, in Atlanta.G.J. Lenhard, a Louisiana State University research entomologist and curator of theconference slide series, provided many slides.Entomologists now have a quick, accurate resource to help identify insects. In fact,orders have already been shipped to New York, Canada, Vermont, Oregon and throughout theSouth. But it isn’t just for professional entomologists and foresters. Teachers, landowners,commercial pesticide applicators, journalists and others can use it, too.The CD-ROM set can be used with any software that supports the Kodak Photo CD (.PCD)format. The Kodak Access software included with the CDs works with PC and Mac.To order a set for $25, contact Douce at P.O. Box 1209, Tifton, GA 31793. Or phone(912) 386-3424. Or fax (912) 386-7133.Georgia county Extension agents will also use the CD-ROM set as a quick teaching andidentification aid for the public.As for those odd worms on your maple tree? Check out slide number 15, showing thegreen-striped mapleworm larva.
Mayweather hung up his gloves after his big-money cross-sports fight against UFC legend Conor McGregor in 2017. He is believed to have earned around £300m for the scrap that saw him stop McGregor in the 10th round at the T-Mobile Arena in Las Vegas. The 43-year-old Michigan man often teases a return to the sport that made him a legend in training videos. But he says it would take a monumental money offer to get him lacing the gloves back up. He has previously said he would rematch McGregor and box UFC champ Khabib Nurmagomedov – but only for £464m. Speaking to FightHype.com, ‘The Money’ said: “If I see an opportunity where I can entertain and have a little fun and make six hundred million, why not? “If I am going to do something it’s got to be worth it. Promoted ContentCan Playing Too Many Video Games Hurt Your Body?Who Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?Which Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?A Hurricane Can Be As Powerful As 10 Atomic BombsTop 10 Enemies Turned Friends In TVWho’s The Best Car Manufacturer Of All Time?7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend Better10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them10 Places On Our Planet Where The Most People LiveYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime8 Best 1980s High Tech Gadgets Loading… Floyd Mayweather has said he would return to boxing if he is paid £500 million. But the American, who retired with a perfect 50-0 fight record, doesn’t fancy coming back to fight “any of the younger guys”. “But there’s no number that’s worth me getting back in that ring and fighting these young fighters to get any type of wear and tear on my body.” Mayweather then said that he would prefer any return to the boxing ring to be in exhibition bouts. He famously left Tenshin Nasukawa in tears in one of these after battering the Japanese kickboxer into a first-round KO back in December 2018. Mayweather added: “Am I going to fight any fighters as of right now? No. “I’m retired. I’m retired from the sport of boxing. “I’m training, having fun, and enjoying life. I don’t want for anything. I’m not retired from business. “When I beat McGregor, they said ‘That ain’t 50 fights (50-0)’. But these guys are fighting and they are making a couple of dollars, they’re crazy.” read also:Ronaldo, Mayweather own supercars but not richest collection in sport Mayweather also laughed off recent rumours that he has ran out of money, saying that he “makes seven figures every month” from “smart investments”. The boxing legend, 43, is known to own a stunning array of luxury toys having earned an eye-watering £706million in the last decade. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享
Sir Alex Ferguson believes Rio Ferdinand will be the next long-serving member of the Manchester United squad to sign a contract extension. Ryan Giggs penned a new one-year deal on Friday, ensuring his United career will extend beyond his 40th birthday. Paul Scholes’ future is open to debate given the niggling injuries he has endured, in addition to the knowledge he has already retired once before being talked out of it in January 2012. Ferdinand seems more likely to sign yet so far, and Ferguson said: “That is a strong possibility. It would have to happen before the end of the season.” Ferdinand is managing a long-standing back complaint and his performances this season suggest he still has a major role to play with the Red Devils, even if England boss Roy Hodgson is not interested. He is virtually certain to be involved against Real Madrid on Tuesday, when United look to secure their place in the Champions League quarter-finals. “I think he has had a great season,” said Ferguson. “He has managed himself the right way and we have contributed to that in the preparation we give him. “He doesn’t play every game in the same way that Ryan doesn’t play every game. “But in terms of key matches he has been absolutely brilliant. “Two weeks ago, against Real Madrid, he was excellent so we need to get him ready for the big one on Tuesday.” Press Association
After a short break for the holidays, the Red Stripe Premier League (RSPL) will resume today with five quality matches and another of equal importance tomorrow.Promoted team Portmore United, who trail leaders Montego Bay United on goal difference, will have the opportunity to overtake the St James-based team for, at least, 24 hours if they get the better of visitors Reno at Juici Park in Clarendon. Mid-table Boys’ Town will play away to the struggling Cavalier SC at Stadium East while relegation-threatened Rivoli United will host the improving Harbour View at the Prison Oval.Eighth-placed UWI FC have been steadily showing that they belong among the big boys, and a victory over fourth-placed Humble Lion will make believers of others besides their growing band of fans, but, perhaps, the most interest will be in the Arnett Gardens-Waterhouse match at Drewsland. The Drewsland-based team has experienced the greatest reversal of form of all the teams in the League and are now looking to their third coach for the season, Paul Young, to deliver them from their sorry position.No wins yetIn their two matches under Young’s guidance so far, Waterhouse have played to two draws, scored six goals while conceding six. The second was a 4-4 draw with Cavalier FC, where the score resembled an incomplete set of a tennis match. While it was good that Waterhouse scored goals, Kenroy Howell scoring three, it also showed that they are very porous as Cavalier have struggled all season to find the back of the net and had only scored seven from their previous seven games.The above situation could be very inviting to defending champions Arnett Gardens.”Despite their poor showing when Waterhouse play against Arnett Gardens, they usually come with their best effort,” said Arnett Gardens coach Jerome Waite, perhaps masking his excitement at the prospect of facing them.”They have a good coach in Paul Young and, under his charge, they have played two games and have drawn both. They also scored six goals and conceded six, so they have positives in terms of the goals that they have scored, but they have negatives in terms of the goals they have conceded, so we will see,” added the analytical Waite.Young is hoping he can move the team to safety and possibly a semi-final place.”The effort is there at training every day. The attitude is good and the team spirit is good, so I am looking to good things on Sunday,” Young told The Gleaner last Thursday at the Red Stripe Premier League’s weekly press briefing at Red Stripe.However, if they are able to get their act together on the field, they may have a good chance to surprise the defending champions as they will be without two of their key players in defensive rock, captain O’Neil ‘Bigga’ Thompson and midfielder Renae Lloyd. With Thompson out of the backline, Jermain Anderson, Howell, and company may have a greater chance of advancing on goal.At the other end, the home team will have to pay great attention to their former player, Kemal Malcolm, who is having his best Premier League season so far with nine goals to be third on the goal scoring table. With Rohan Amos looking way past his best and Nicholi Finlayson looking casual at best, that combination could be easing pickings for Malcolm and the rejuvenated Leon Strickland, also a former Waterhouse player. Both could be aiming to show Waterhouse what they are missing.Today’s Games:5 p.m.: Cavalier vs Boys’ Town – Stadium East3 p.m.: Portmore United vs Reno – Juici Park, Clarendon3 p.m.: Rivoli United vs Harbour View – Prison Oval3 p.m.: UWI FC vs Humble Lion – UWI Bowl, Mona6 p.m.: Waterhouse vs Arnett Gardens – Drewsland StadiumTomorrow’s game:8:40 p.m.: Montego Bay United vs Tivoli Gardens – Montego Bay Sports Complex Points standingTeam P W D L GF GA GD PtsMoBay United 18 9 7 2 29 11 18 34Portmore 18 10 4 4 19 14 5 34Arnett 18 10 2 6 27 15 12 32Humble Lion FC 18 7 7 4 14 12 2 28H.View 18 6 7 5 18 18 0 25Boys’ Town 18 7 4 7 21 23 -2 25Reno 18 5 8 5 17 19 -2 23UWI FC 18 6 4 8 17 25 -8 22Tivoli 18 5 4 9 23 26 -3 19Cavalier 18 4 6 8 11 18 -7 18Rivoli 18 4 5 9 19 25 -6 17Waterhouse 18 3 6 9 17 26 -9 15
SAN FRANCISCO — Madison Bumgarner was in the weight room at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, wearing a black shirt and orange gym shorts when he was interrupted, if only for a brief moment.When the trade deadline passed on July 31, Bumgarner wasn’t paying attention to a clock or clutching his iPhone. A teammate in the gym looked up, saw the time and pointed out to the pitcher that he was still a Giant.Unlike fellow pitchers Mark Melancon, Sam Dyson and Drew Pomeranz, Bumgarner did not …
A turbulent year that included the need to avoid war zones created challenges that saw Emirates’ 2015-16 growth in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions outpace its rapid increase in capacity.The giant Gulf carrier continues to investigate new ways to fly more efficiently after a 12.8 per cent rise in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions outstripped an 11 per cent growth in capacity, measured in available tonnes per kilometres.Most of the increase was driven by growth that included the introduction to the network of eight new destinations, higher frequencies to 20 existing ports and the use of bigger aircraft on some routes.But weighing against the carrier’s fuel efficiency efforts, according to its latest environmental report, were challenges such as airspace closures due to security concerns.“Against our business successes, the past year was a turbulent one,’’ chairman Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum said in the report.“Instability in many parts of the world including Ukraine, Syria, Iraq and Yemen has led us to re-route flights to avoid conflict zones, which has had the unavoidable effect of increasing the fuel consumption on the flights that would normally transit these regions.’’Other factors included tougher market conditions that were partly responsible for a 1.8 percentage fall in overall load factor to 65.5 per cent as well as measures to ensure the integrity of the airline’s Dubai hub.As a result, the airline’s per passenger fuel use in 2015-16 grew 5.3 per cent to 4.20 litres per 100 passenger kilometres, compared with 3.99 litres per 100 passenger kilometres the year beforeOverall fuel efficiency fell to 0.3269 litres per tonne kilometre, compared with 0.3057 litres per tonne kilometre the previous year, despite a 0.9 per cent improvement in the fuel efficiency of the carrier’s freighters.“We will be redoubling our efforts on fuel efficiency in the coming year, looking at all aspects from pilot operating techniques, through ground handling and auxiliary power unit (APU) use, to maintenance and weight reduction opportunities, as well as continuing our cooperation with authorities and air traffic management providers around the world to ensure that we can fly the most fuel-efficient flight paths,’’ the report said.A major plank of the Dubai carrier’s efforts to keep carbon emissions under control is the youth of its fleet: 74 months on average compared to industry average of 140 months. Emirates added 29 new aircraft in 2015-16 while retiring nine older aircraft.The young fleet means it complies with Chapter 4 noise requirements, the most stringent currently in force.The company has been working with air traffic control at its Dubai hub to introduce a program to improve the arrival rate of aircraft by decreasing the spacing between aircraft and the UK air traffic controller, NATS, to restructure airspace around London Heathrow to reduce delays due to strong winds.It also scored runs with a 10 per cent reduction in the footprint of its ground transportation fleet as well as a major solar installation at its engine maintenance centre.The 1-megawatt array involved the installation of 2990 panels to form a roof over the engine centre’s car parks to generate more than 1.88 megawatt-hours of electricity each year and save about 800 tonnes of carbon dioxide.Other energy efficiency initiatives included the replacement of lights used for aircraft cabin maintenance with energy saving LED lights, a comprehensive refurbishment of Emirates’ London office that improved energy efficiency by 60 per cent and reduction in power consumption in offshoot dnata’s cargo operations in Brisbane and Sydney.Emirates continued its wildlife conservation efforts in Dubai and Australia while partnering conservation umbrella group partners for wildlife to raise awareness about the devastation caused by the illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products.
Episode 15 of the Play Your Part TV series features Eco Culture Sechaba Foundation in Johannesburg, Calabash Trust in Port Elizabeth and Greenland Landscaping Farm in Limpopo. Here’s how to get involved with these initiatives:Amelia Ratlhankana belongs to Eco Culture Sechaba Foundation, which teaches people to become conservationists. It also does door-to-door education in a variety of subjects, such as illegal dumping, conservation, sewerage and municipal services. (Images: Brand South Africa)Brand South Africa reporterOn episode 15 of Play Your Part, we hear how Eco Culture Sechaba Foundation helped six schools in Johannesburg reach green flag and gold certificate status.The episode, which airs on Saturday, 23 December 2017, is hosted by South African artist Kabelo Mabalane.Here’s more about the guests and how you can get involved with their initiatives:Amelia RatlhankanaRatlhankana is a member of Eco Culture Sechaba Foundation. Its programmes are based on renewable energy (solar geyser and bio-gas), food security (vegetable garden), biodiversity (indigenous gardens and trees), water conservation and water management (recycling system and compost).The team has worked in Cosmo City in Johannesburg since 2011, supporting environmental programmes especially in schools.Contact detailsFacebook: Eco Culture Sechaba FoundationEmail: [email protected]: @iamAmieBRifqah TifloenRifqah TifloenTifloen is on the Calabash Trust team. The trust is a branch of Calabash Tours, a company that gives tourists an experience of life in townships.The trust works with non-governmental organisations to run food gardens and a feeding scheme in schools. It also hosts various workshops, including a storytelling workshop.Contact detailsFacebook: Calabash TrustWebsite: www.calabashtours.co.zaEmail: [email protected] NetshiaAluwani NetshiaArmed with a qualification in agriculture, Netshia started her own landscaping business. Since then, Greenland Landscaping Farm in Limpopo has expanded and now produces food items such as avocados, pear trees and rose geraniums.The business, owned by women, began with two employees and now has a staff of more than 20 people.Contact detailsFacebook: Greenland LandscapingPlay Your Part is broadcast at 18:00 on Saturdays on SABC2.To get involved in playing your part in South Africa:Check out the conversation on Twitter: #GetInvolved; orFind out about initiatives on Play Your Part here.Tell us how you Play Your Part through our social media channels:Follow us on Twitter: @PlayYourPartSA;Follow Brand South Africa on Twitter: @Brand_SA;Like us on Facebook: Official Brand South Africa.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest This is the time to check the accuracy of your sprayer. One can determine if the chemicals are applied at the proper rate only by carefully calibrating the sprayer. While applying too little pesticide may result in ineffective pest control, too much pesticide wastes money, may damage the crop and increases the potential risk of contaminating ground water and environment. The primary goal with calibration is to determine the actual rate of application in gallons per acre, then to make adjustments if the difference between the actual rate and the intended rate is greater or less than 5% of the intended rate. This is a recommended guideline by USEPA and USDA.Before starting calibration, make sure you have a good set of nozzles on the sprayer. Nozzles wear off through extended use causing over application, or some nozzles are plugged. Clean all the plugged nozzles. Check the output of all the nozzles for a given length of time at a given spray pressure. Compare output from each nozzle’s output with the expected output shown in the nozzle catalog for that nozzle at the same pressure. Replace the nozzles showing an output error of more than 10% of the output of the new nozzle. Once you do this, now you are ready to calibrate your sprayer.There are several ways to calibrate a sprayer. Regardless of which method you choose, it usually doesn’t take more than 30 minutes, and only three things are needed: a timer (or watch or smart phones) showing seconds, a measuring tape, and a jar graduated in ounces. Here, I will describe perhaps the easiest of all the methods to determine the actual application rate of a sprayer for broadcast applications: Fill the sprayer tank (at least half full) with water.Calculate the average nozzle output by adding the individual outputs and then dividing by the number of nozzles tested. The final average nozzle output in ounces you get is equal to the application rate in gallons per acre. For example, if you catch 15 ounces from a set of nozzles, the actual application rate of the sprayer is equal to 15 gallons per acre.Run the sprayer, inspect it for leaks, and make sure all vital parts function properly.Measure the distance in inches between the nozzles.Measure an appropriate travel distance in the field based on this nozzle spacing. The appropriate distances for different nozzle spacing is as follows: 408 feet for a 10-inch spacing, 272 feet for a 15-inch spacing, 204 feet for 20-inch spacing, 136 feet for a 30-inch spacing, and 102 feet for a 40-inch spacing. (See extension publication FABE-520 for travel distances for other spacings, and for an explanation for selection of these specific travel distances for given nozzle spacing (http://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/fabe-520).Drive through the measured distance in the field at your normal spraying speed, and record the travel time in seconds. Repeat this procedure and average the two measurements.With the sprayer parked, run the sprayer at the same pressure level and catch the output from each nozzle in a measuring jar for the travel time required in step 5 above.Compare the actual application rate with the recommended or intended rate. If the actual rate is more than 5% higher or lower than the recommended or intended rate, you must make adjustments in either spray pressure or travel speed or in both. For example, to increase the flow rate you will need to either slow down, or increase the spray pressure. The opposite is true when you need to reduce application rate. As you make these changes stay within proper and safe operating condition of the sprayer. Remember increased pressure will result in increasing the number of small, drift-prone droplets. Using the trial-and error method to eventually reach the intended application rate takes some time. If you follow the equations given in Extension Publication FABE-520 on Calibration you can find optimum travel speed and pressure much faster.Recalibrate the sprayer (repeat steps 5-8 above) until the recommended application error within 5% or less is achieved.Don’t forget one very important thing while calibrating, and especially operating a sprayer: safety. Although clean water is used during calibration, you should still protect yourself from getting in contact with pesticides inside or outside sprayer equipment. Wear personal protective equipment, at least gloves and goggles. Happy spraying! Erdal Ozkan, Professor and Extension ag engineer, can be reached at 614-292-3006, or [email protected] This column is provided by the OSU Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, OSU Extension, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, and the College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.