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National Geographic claimed today. “Darwin the Buddhist? Empathy Writings Reveal Parallels,” wrote Christine Dell’Amore about new ideas about Darwin by Paul Ekman, psychologist. What could Darwin possibly have to do with Buddhism? Ekman told an audience at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago that Charles Darwin was fascinated with facial expressions of emotion. Indeed, he wrote a book on it: The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872), in which he hired photographers to film faces of people expressing happiness, rage, sadness and other feelings. Darwin suggested that empathy was a universal trait that had evolved in humans. Ekman said the idea of universal empathy meshes with Buddhist beliefs about compassion. Ekman also suggested “it’s also possible that Darwin encountered Buddhist teachings through letters from other scholars of the time.” To strengthen the Darwin-Buddha connection, Ekman shared an inside story: the Dalai Lama had told him that he “would consider himself a Darwinian.” Ekman did not explain how this new compassionate Darwin relates to the old picture of evolution as a process of pitiless indifference by a natural world red in tooth and claw. Nor did he explain why compassion, if genetically inherited in some people and not others, needs to be cultivated – a role seemingly more suitable for religion. The article simply stated point blank, “Until psychologists figure out why the disparity exists, he said, ‘the survival of our planet’ depends on cultivating compassion.” This begs the question whether even survival is a good thing in a universe of pitiless indifference. Nevertheless, the article suggested people could go to “compassion gyms” to improve their empathy fitness. Somehow, this makes sense to Ekman as he imagines primates becoming more self-aware. The NG article ended with a quote to this effect by Barbara King, an evolutionary anthropologist at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. She said, “We wouldn’t be human in the ways we are human today if apes were not deeply emotional creatures and deeply social ones. We are … products of our past.” This article reinforces recent attempts to portray a kinder, gentler Darwin, who opposed slavery (see Uncommon Descent). Some Darwinists, though, don’t appear to have inherited the compassion gene. In Forbes, Jerry Coyne slammed neurosurgeon Michael Egnor, who had criticized evolution earlier on Forbes, by calling him a charlatan and comparing him to a holocaust denier. Egnor has had a running rebuttal to Coyne on Evolution News and Views, continuing with part 2 and part 3.OK, Darwin skeptics, charge! They’re exposing their true colors: Darwinism is a religion. It may be politically-correct religion, but it’s religion nonetheless. Is it any wonder we portray Darwin as the Bearded Buddha? Even the Dalai Lama worships at his shrine. Caution: don’t offer the prescribed sacrifice! You will need your brain to understand what is going on: Darwin evolves to fit the rhetorical needs of the Darwin Party propaganda machine. 30 years ago it was the Malthusian, red-claw Darwin of pitiless indifference. Now it’s the compassionate Buddhist Darwin. Behind the facade it’s the same Blunderful Wizard of Flaws.(Visited 16 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Investors can employ a variety of legal business structures in South Africa, depending on the nature of the operation and the related tax and legal considerations. The most commonly adopted forms of doing business by foreign investors are private companies and branches.Companies may be either private or public. (Image: Brand South Africa)South Africa has a well-developed and formally regulated company law regime. All South African businesses are governed by the Companies Act No 71 of 2008. It is administered by the Companies and Intellectual Properties Commission.Website: Companies and Intellectual Properties CommissionDownload: The Companies Act, No 71 of 2008 – An explanatory guide [PDF], published by the Department of Trade and IndustryThe new Companies Act, which was promulgated in 2009 and has been effective since May 2011, rewrites South African law completely. The new Act aims to modernise the law, align it with international best practice, and make it more business friendly – especially by streamlining it with other South African legislation, such as the Promotion of Access to Information Act.By making it simpler and less prescriptive, the new Act encourages entrepreneurship as well as economic and employment growth. It is more flexible (companies are allowed to change certain requirements according to their own circumstances, for example); and adaptable (smaller companies have less arduous responsibilities than large public companies when it comes to corporate governance and financial reporting).South African law used to provide for a business entity type called Close Corporations (CCs) until the Companies Act 71 of 2008 came into force on 1 May 2011. While CCs may no longer be created, existing CCs will continue to operate until they are converted into companiesNote: Foreigners who are contemplating investing in the South African economy by establishing a business or by investing in an existing business in the country must apply for a business permit. As an applicant, you will be required to invest a prescribed financial capital contribution.Read more: Working in South Africa: work permitsWebsite: www.home-affairs.gov.zaThe Companies Act regulates the formation, conduct of affairs, and liquidation of all companies and it makes no distinction between locally owned or foreign-owned companies. Companies may be either private or public.There is a wealth of world-class expertise that will guide an investor through the process of registering a business in South Africa. Legal, management, banking and accounting firms are supported by chambers of commerce, embassies and government offices.Website: See www.cipro.gov.za, the website of the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (CIPC). An agency of the Department of Trade and Industry agency, it focuses on the registration of companies and intellectual property.Download: Companies Act No 71 of 2008 [PDF]Choice of business entityThere are two broad types of companies included under the Companies Act: non-profit companies and profit companies.Non-profit companiesA company set up for public benefit, or for a purpose relating to cultural or social activities, or communal or group interests, such as religion, sciences, education, arts, charity or recreation. Under the old Act, these were known as Section 21 companies. Non-profit companies are now dealt with in Section 1 to the Act.The income and property of a non-profit company are to be applied solely to the promotion of the non-profit company’s main object.Website: See www.services.gov.za for information on registering a non-profit companyProfit companiesThe principal methods of doing business in South Africa are by using a:Public (name ends in “Ltd”) or private (“Pty Ltd”) companyPersonal Liability Company (“Inc”)PartnershipBusiness trustSole proprietorshipExternal company (branch of a foreign company)Tax and other considerations affect the choice of a particular form of business entity. The most commonly adopted forms of doing business by foreign investors are private companies and branches.Companies operate on the basis of limited liability. As a general rule, members are not liable for the debts of a company; however, there are exceptions to this rule.Private companiesMost foreign investors set up as a private company, as they require the least amount of annual formalities.They must have at least one director and shareholder and membership is restricted to 50. The directors do not need not be South African residents or nationals.Public companiesPublic companies are formed to raise funds by offering shares to the public and there is no limit to the number of shareholders.External companiesForeign companies that do business or carry out non-profit activities in South Africa are known as external companies.Such a company should be reasonably seen as intending to engage in business or non- profit activities in South Africa, though activities such as:being party to one or more employment contracts within South Africa; orengaging in a course or pattern of activities within South Africa over a period of at least six months.Branches of foreign companies are accorded legal status in South Africa by virtue of their registration as external companies but are not recognised as separate legal entities – except for exchange control purposes.An external company must register with the Companies and Intellectual Properties Commission within 20 business days after it first begins to conduct business, or non- profit activities, in South Africa.Contact: www.cipc.co.zaDomesticated companiesA “domesticated company’ is defined as a foreign company whose registration has been transferred to South Africa and which will thereafter exist as a company in terms of the Companies Act as if it had been originally so incorporated and registered.Source: Department of Trade and Industry’s Investor’s HandbookReviewed: 15 March 2013Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? 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Botulism kills migratory birds at Sambhar lakeVolume 90%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard ShortcutsPlay/PauseSPACEIncrease Volume↑Decrease Volume↓Seek Forward→Seek Backward←Captions On/OffcFullscreen/Exit FullscreenfMute/UnmutemSeek %0-9Live00:0001:1401:14 The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Bareilly, on Thursday confirmed avian botulism — a neuro-muscular illness caused by a toxin which is produced by a bacterial strain — as the reason for mass mortality of birds, including migratory species from Northern Asia, at Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan.The laboratory tests conducted on the samples of carcasses collected from the lake confirmed the disease infecting the birds, the probability of which was earlier stated by veterinarians in the State. The illness, caused by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum, affected the nervous system of birds, leading to flaccid paralysis in their legs and wings and neck touching the ground.More than 18,000 carcasses of birds have been removed from the lake and its catchment area so far, raising concern among environmentalists and ornithologists. The scientists at IVRI found the samples infested with maggots of third stage with a clear indication that the avian mortality had occurred over a period of time.Animal Husbandry Minister Lal Chand Kataria said the IVRI report had approved the regimen of treatment adopted for birds recovered from the lake’s shores. “The rescue centres established near the lake have treated 735 birds, of which 368 are alive and 36 have been released to their natural habitat,” he said.Located 80 km south-west of Jaipur, Sambhar Lake is India’s largest inland saline water body and has been designated as a wetland of international importance, attracting thousands of migratory birds during winter.Avian flu ruled outA Bhopal-based laboratory had earlier ruled out avian flu as the cause of deaths of birds after examining the viscera. The post-mortem of two bird carcasses by a Bikaner-based research organisation had concluded that bacterium Clostridium botulinum had entered from the soil into the meat of some dead birds.